Warszawa (live, 1978).
Warszawa (Philip Glass, “Low Symphony,” 1993).
Warszawa (live, 2002).

I’d like to thank Warsaw’s Agata Pyzik for her generous help on this entry.

Your lightdarkblue morning light, O city.
…You run through the streets all night,
sensational hi-fi is still blasting through the housing blocks,
and the city cowers, it pastes its glass buildings
onto the future, but it’s getting bogged down, sinking, vanishing
into the mud…

Andrzej Sosnowski, “Warszawa” (collected in Lodgings, 1997).

Before he recorded “Warszawa,” Bowie had been in the city once in his life, for a few hours. He had gone through Poland in May 1973, traveling from Moscow to West Berlin, but he hadn’t left the train (with good reason: at some point in Poland an overzealous train official, demanding his papers, had tried to push into Bowie’s compartment). In April 1976, Bowie and Iggy Pop took a train from Zurich to Moscow, again via Poland. As per Paul Trynka’s bio of Iggy Pop: They saw towns still pockmarked with bullet holes and a landscape scarred by unrepaired bomb craters; drawing alongside a goods train in Warsaw, they witnessed a worker unloading coal piece by piece in the gray, freezing sleet.

In Warsaw, the train was kept for a few hours at Dworzec Gdański (Gdansk Railway Station), so Bowie went for a walk in Warsaw’s Żoliborz district, in what was then called Plac Komuny Paryskiej (Paris Commune Square) (it’s since been rechristened its original name, Plac Wilsona). Years later, Bowie’s Polish fans would recount his walk, almost step by step. Bowie stopped at a record shop and bought a few LPs by the folk song and dance ensemble Śląsk, one of which featured Stanisław Hadyna’s composition “Helokanie.”

Of these scant impressions Bowie made a world, or at least a city. He named the six-minute-plus brooding hymn that opens Low‘s “night” side not after Moscow, a city of which he’d had some experience, nor Berlin, his future home, but Warsaw, a city that he had only glimpsed. Maybe Warsaw was just an emptier canvas, or perhaps something about the city resonated Bowie during his brief walk. He had just left Los Angeles, a city of professional dreams; he had grown up in a London experiencing a brief second childhood; he had made his art out of fabrications—imaginary rock singers, gleefully violent comic book dystopias. Warsaw had little of this. What Warsaw had was the iron residue of history: it was nearly leveled during the war, a great part of its population murdered—in death camps, in failed uprisings, in reprisals. For Bowie, it was a fallen city, a conquered city, a city left to the spies and the winter.

One of Italo Calvino’s invisible cities is Eusapia, “whose inhabitants have constructed an identical copy of their city, underground,” where they bring all their corpses “to continue their former activities.” Slowly, imperceptibly, the dead begin to alter their surroundings, thus forcing the living to continually change their own city so as to retain the mirror image. They say that this has not just now begun to happen: actually it was the dead who built the upper Eusapia, in the image of their city. They say that in the twin cities there is no longer any way of knowing who is alive and who is dead.

The song that Bowie named after Warsaw begins with a slow tolling, the sound of a funeral bell as played by a child at a piano.

Brian Eno often was working alone in the last weeks of the Low sessions at Château d’Hérouville. Bowie had gone to Paris for a court case (he was breaking with his manager). Before he left, he asked Eno to write a slow piece, something with a “very emotive, almost religious feel to it.”

Eno heard Tony Visconti’s four-year-old son on the studio piano, pressing three consecutive white keys: A, B and C. He came in the room, sat down next to the boy at the piano, and played along with him, finishing the melody. This would become the main “Warszawa” theme, and Eno entwined it into a larger structure, one (again) formed through deliberate randomness.

As with “Art Decade,” Eno structured the piece to a series of metronomic clicks (in this case 430), each click numbered on another track, so that a chord change or a new bassline would be pegged to a random number. This was meant to free Eno from compositional crutches, from the routine of bar strictures and beats. And as with “Art Decade,” despite this deliberate randomness, “Warszawa”‘s layout is easily discernible and even rather traditional. It’s in four distinct sections (in generally 4/4 time): an opening 24-bar “overture” (0:00 to 1:17), a 48-bar “theme” (1:17 to 3:46), a 32-bar “chorus” (Bowie’s vocal, 3:47 to 5:25) and finally a 16-bar repeat of the theme.

The opening, in A major, begins with 8 bars of tolling piano (four consecutive A notes on the keyboard played together), then moves to D minor upon the appearance of the first fragmented melody, a progression that stalls on an E chord. After another round of A octaves, the melody started by Visconti’s son appears—A, B, C# (each played in four octaves). Again, there’s no progression after a certain point: the music freezes, staying on a C chord until the theme section begins.

The piece changes key to F-sharp major, and the three-note pattern returns; four bars in, with a move to D# minor, a second, even more gorgeous melody appears, reaching a peak with an A# chord. After a repeat, there’s a third sparkling little melody, a stepwise upward movement that begins on B. The simplicity, the cleanness of the three melodic lines is reminiscent of Satie’s first Gymnopédie; the slow coagulation of sound echoes the opening of Shostakovich’s Eleventh.

The instruments were primarily the small group of synthesizers that Bowie and Eno had brought to the sessions—Eno’s EMS and Minimoog, Bowie’s Chamberlin—along with the studio’s small collection of ARPs (and possibly some treated guitar). Both synthesizers and piano play the continually-tolling A or C octaves underneath much of the piece; the Chamberlin doubles for a wind section.

The theme section ends, the key returns to A major, there’s four bars of musings by a synthetic cello, and then the voices appear.

Bowie returned to the studio from Paris drained and irritable and decided to move operations to Berlin. Yet when he heard Eno’s music, he came up with a lyric in about ten minutes, and recorded it almost as quickly. He played Visconti what the latter recalled as a “Balkan boys choir record” (very likely the Śląsk records Bowie that had picked up in Warsaw). Bowie said he wanted to achieve a similar sound for his vocals, some of which echo the “helo helo” chorus of “Helokanie.”

Sula vie dilejo
Solo vie milejo
Cheli venco deho (x2)
Helibo seyoman
Cheli venco raero
Malio, malio

It seems like a newly-crafted dialect of Esperanto. Bowie’s lines aren’t nonsense words he dashed out: they’re a series of phonetics, with a rich internal rhyme scheme and a common rhythmic base (six syllables for each phrase except “malio,” which gets three, though Bowie varies the phrasing of his vocal—he sings the first “deho” in two notes, the second with a downward run of four notes). The lines are easy to sing, as the language seems to be a fusion of the most melodious Romance tongues—Italian, French, Spanish and Portuguese—with a flavor of Slavic in it. (And the “East” appears as well, with the chanted “om” in the bass section).

And it’s not the hermetic, broken language of “Subterraneans.” There’s a richness, a warmth to the words: the long vowels, the easy lift of the mild consonants. It’s as though it was the lost language of a common Europe, some alternate blessed continent that escaped the wars. A tone poem from the world that wasn’t. (It’s fitting that “Warszawa”‘s partial inspiration was a choir named after a country that no longer exists: Silesia, first absorbed by Prussia in the 18th Century, then severed and distributed to Poland and Czechoslovakia after WWII.)

As the music of “Warszawa” is the work of a synthetic orchestra, a handful of machines standing in for what would have been dozens of instruments, its vocals are a choir of one man’s manipulated voice. Bowie sings the first lines in his regular baritone. Then, beginning with “cheli venco” Bowie sang onto a tape that Visconti had slowed down two semitones: played back at normal speed, Bowie’s voice had become a child’s. The final lines seem sung by a dervish.

Bowie named “Warszawa” well after he and Eno had made it: he hadn’t set out to capture the city in a song. If Low‘s A side was a series of brief communiques from a shattered man, its second side was a set of quiet interior landscapes, a psychic desolation embodied in an imaginary Eastern Europe. Berlin was the setpiece, but Warsaw, the gloomy city Bowie had walked through one lost afternoon, was its heart. The song is a broken, brooding man reincarnated in a city.

The creative peak of Low, “Warszawa” is one of Bowie’s most sublime works, and its influence would echo for years to come. Ian Curtis was so obsessed with the song that he named his punk group after it. Scott Walker’s “The Electrician” seems inspired by “Warszawa”‘s tolling opening (most of Walker’s contributions to Nite Flights, a 1978 Walker Brothers record, are reactions to Low and “Heroes”).

And how was it heard in Warsaw itself? The Polish punk rock groups of the late ’70s and early ’80s tended to draw on other influences than Bowie. Yet it was a touchstone for the poet Andrzej Sosnowski, who would use “Warszawa” as a hidden reference in his work. Sosnowski’s Warszawa “is always filtered through Bowie’s Warszawa, meaning there’s a mythical, concrete, bleak Warszawa that Bowie had in mind, that only partially is the real Warsaw,” the writer Agata Pyzik told me. “The image that has been prolonged in Western minds is very much like this, but you may also say that Bowie immortalized a certain image of the city, his inner Warsaw. I thought it always one of the most solemn, uncanny Bowie songs, and a proper homage to my city, which is until this day quite sinister.”

Recorded at Château d’Hérouville in September 1976 and Hansa, Berlin, September-October 1976. It was the standard opener of the 1978 tour (a version from Philadelphia is on Stage, while the clip linked above is from a Tokyo concert on 12 December 1978, filmed for the “Young Music Show”) and for some of the Heathen tour, 2002. Used by Philip Glass for the “Low” Symphony, 1992-93.

From top: unknown photog., “Construction of the Palace of Culture and Science,” Warsaw, ca. 1955; Nancy JM Blake, “Warsaw, 1976”;  “Anty Rama,” “Metro Plac Wilsona, Zoliborz, Warszawa,” 2009; Edek Giejgo, “Warszawa- Ulica Swietojanska 1976.”

33 Responses to Warszawa

  1. diamond dog says:

    Fascinating stuff and a credit to you a great read. This is my favourite track on Low, the phonetics he was singing in a foreign lanquage. I would have loved to have seen it as an opener on the 78 tour wow!!! It is very bleak though was heavy going when first listening in my youth , it is his most demanding piece and I think you get more from it over the years than any other on there. You really do an excellent job of putting a piece of music into a time and place …thank you.

  2. diamond dog says:

    Sorry meant to say I thought he was singing in a foreign language….damn blackberry keyboards.

  3. sekaer says:

    One of the very best posts so far, which is really saying something–bravo

  4. Jeremy Earl says:

    Bravo indeed – I have nothing more to add, except – love the pictures!

  5. giospurs says:

    Great post.
    Your comparison to Shostakovich’s Eleventh is really interesting. A few days ago I’d compared Low to Toto’s Dune soundtrack but after hearing this Shostakovich symphony I think it is just as likely that both were influenced from it.
    Interestingly, Angelo Badalementi’s score for another Lynch film, Blue Velvet, is also influenced heavily by Shostakovich, specifically his Fifteenth.

  6. spoonfed says:

    As a schoolboy back in the 1970s and a fan of both Bowie and Eno when I read in the NME (or some other music rag) that they were collaborating it seemed a marriage made in heaven but I will admit to having being somewhat slightly disappointed by the instrumentals on both Low and Heroes. They seem rather thrown together and predictable as if Eno was going through the motions and Bowie was just dabbling. So Warszawa to my ears sounds rather obvious almost dare one say cod Eastern European and the vocalisation a little embarrassing.

  7. Jeremy Earl says:

    Sure it’s good to have different views 🙂 Murray wrote two reviews – the first critical and disappointed and then a second the following week that praised it, although cautiously I believe.

  8. Maj says:

    This one is easily my favourite of the instrumentals on the B side of Low. I especially like the ’78 live version w/o the vocal.
    Brilliant write-up, btw.

  9. This is absolutely fascinating. I’m listening to Low now at work with my 21-year-old colleague and she’s not liking it one little bit. (I’m 40). So I’m trying to explain to her the cultural significance etc.

    I saw Bowie perform Low in its entirety in London a few years back and it was astounding. He followed it up with Heathen. One of my best ever gigs.

    It was interesting to read the Shostakovich thing. He is one of my favourite composers, but I’d never listened to the 11th. I’m off to do that now.

    Thanks for putting all this together.

  10. I am enjoying the links to Glass’s symphony. Curious as to the author’s thoughts, since you do not seem to be addressing it at all.

  11. Hey! This post could not be written any better!

    Reading through this post reminds me of my old room mate!
    He always kept talking about this. I will forward this write-up
    to him. Fairly certain he will have a good read.
    Many thanks for sharing!

  12. Les Blachut says:

    (It’s fitting that “Warszawa”‘s partial inspiration was a choir named after a country that no longer exists: Silesia, first absorbed by Prussia in the 18th Century, then severed and distributed to Poland and Czechoslovakia after WWII.) Oh really?? Absurd!! Silesia was a part of Poland from its very beginning and as such it has existed and will exist that way. As the whole country of Poland was divided into 3 parts by Russia, Germany and Austro-Hungaria so was Silesia. Another misconception is Silesia being a part of Czechoslovakia after WWII. It was the annexation of Zaolzie and it was BEFORE WWII. Please check the reliability of your information sources before posting. Thanks! P.S. My family is a former member of the Śląsk Folk Song and Dance Ensemble.

  13. Z says:

    Clip by the Brothers McLeod:

  14. I found this blog a few days ago, via the Scott Walker-related entries. It’s a great read. One thing that struck me reading this entry was the description of Bowie’s lyrics on Warszawa being reminiscent of Esperanto, as Ludwig Zamenhof, the inventor of that language, was a Warsaw doctor. A possible link?

  15. President Joan says:

    Ah. This song is brilliant. As is the whole album. I love it.

    And this blog is brilliant. But I find it weird we don’t seem to know what Charles Shaar Murray wrote about Low in ’77.

    – “Tore it apart”, I think.

    – Praised it a week later, I believe.

    Any more light on this?:)

    • Michael says:

      If you can, check out the documentary Five Years. It occasionally pops up on iPlayer if you’re in the UK.

      They interview Shaar-Murray and he reads aloud his review from that edition of the NME, looks up, and says “Yeah, I wrote that” by way of admission that he was wrong.

      He closed the NME piece reprising the lyric from Breaking Glass: “David, you’re a wonderful person, but you’ve got problems”.

      Paraphrasing, he wrote that the world needed a record of hope and that Low was nihilistic.

  16. thze says:

    Reblogged this on Bestiariusz kulturalny and commented:
    Zmarły dzisiaj David Bowie (a właściwie David Jones) najbardziej znany był ze swojej kreacji mistrza glam-rocka, Ziggy Stardust. Warto dodać, że wystąpił również jako aktor w filmie fabularnym.

    W jego twórczości pojawił się “motyw polski”. Fani Davida Bowie’ego i słuchacze radiowej “Trójki” na pewno wiedzą, że wykonywał utwór “Warszawa”. Jest on owocem wizyty w Warszawie w 1973. Artysta, jadąc pociągiem Moskwy-Berlin Zachodni (według innych źródeł pociąg jechał do Paryża), który zatrzymywał sie na Dworcu Gdańskim, postanowił wykorzystać planowany postój.

    Wybrał się na spacer, w kierunku północnym w stronę ówczesnego Placu Komuny Paryskiej, gdzie w sklepie płytowym zakupił kilka miejscowych albumów, w tym płytę polskiego zespołu ludowego “Śląsk”. Spacer po szarym Żoliborzu, ze śladami po pociskach i zakończonej 28 lat wcześniej wojnie, tak zapadł artyście w pamięci, że uwiecznił Miasto nad Wisłą.

    Całą historię można poznać z artykułu z marca 2011 r., umieszczonego na stronie fanów Davida Bowie’ego:

  17. […] Całą historię można poznać z artykułu z marca 2011 r., umieszczonego na stronie fanów Davida Bowie’ego: https://bowiesongs.wordpress.com/2011/03/15/warszawa/ […]

  18. Marysia Galbraith says:

    Reblogged this on Uncovering Jewish Heritage and commented:
    Interesting commentary on David Bowie’s “Warszawa,” which he did with Brian Eno in the 1970s. I remember listening to this song, but don’t think I ever connected it to Warsaw or communism or Poland. RIP David Bowie.

  19. Lisa B. says:

    Somewhere I read that this was Bowie’s own favorite of his work, yet I never found that article again to support my memory of that impression. Has anyone ever read that before? Did I dream it?

  20. […] Eno was largely responsible for the composition of the record’s second side. He had written the theme and instrumentation for ‘Warszawa’ at the Château d’Hérouville while Bowie was away in Paris attending court hearings against his former manager Michael Lippman, making good use of Visconti’s four-year-old son for the song, who sat beside him playing A, B, C in a loop on the studio piano. The phrase became the basis for the ‘Warszawa’ theme, and on his return a suitably impressed Bowie – whose agitation over the court case had already determined his imminent move to Berlin – wrote the song’s lyrics in a matter of minutes. Their oblique yet euphonic patterns of sound echo the ‘Helokanie’ of Polish composer Sta…: […]

  21. garboseyes says:

    Hey, where couId find proper piano chords for Warszawa ? I’m really a beginner and explanations in the article aren’t enough for me to rebuild completely the song 🙂
    Thanks !

    • Tyrell says:

      I think this song is based on root notes and melody, rather than on chords. (That is the melody determines what kind of chord you hear on the root note.) Keeping that in mind here are the chords, following Chris’ description:
      “The opening, in A major,” – I don’t hear it as A major, it is the root note A played in octaves.
      “then movs to D minor” – the melody is A-D-G-F. When it reaches F you can say it is D minor but I am not sure whether there is a D note there.
      “a progression that stalls on an E chord” – There is no E chord there. From F only the melody goes to E, but the root note remains A and now it sounds like an A major chord.
      “the melody started by Visconti’s son appears—A, B, C# ” – it is A-B-C and the chord changes to C (major) indeed.
      The main melody (or “theme” part 1) section: “with a move to D# minor” – F# major, D# minor, C# major. (reaching a peak with an A# chord. – it is a C#, not an A# chord)
      “Theme” part 2 (“After a repeat, there’s a third sparkling little melody, a stepwise upward movement that begins on B”) – B,F#,B,F#.
      “The theme section ends, the key returns to A major” chords are: F# major, F# minor, E major.
      The root note remains E and the “Solo vie milejo” part is in E major (he sings G#) while the “Cheli venco deho” section is rather E minor (he sings a G).
      After “Malio” the root note goes from E to A: E-F-G-A. It remains A during the second part of the sung section. At the end of it (after the last “Malio”) it goes back via A-G-C and C# to the key of the main melody, which closes the song.

      • col1234 says:

        this is well said & in line with the revisions i’ve been doing–the orig. description is a bit off, as you noted. the sheet music differs from your calls on a few notes/chords, but it’s not a rock-solid resource by any means

  22. raw moon says:

    Polish composer Chopin and his lover, George Sands (female novelist) used the Chateau d’Herouville in the 19th century as a meeting place and resort. Chopin was born and spent the first 20 years in Warsaw, Poland. Maybe Bowie was inspired by it’s ‘haunted’ presence while recording ‘LOW’ and used Chopins’ birthplace, Warsaw, as a springboard for it’s title ?

  23. […] Bowie said that he never meant the song to capture the city like some people believed he did. He was looking to the album as a concept and Warszawa is a piece […]

  24. TisAPity says:

    Hi, i have a question about Warszawa and Art Decade. Hugo Wilcken and Nicholas Pegg both seem to agree that composition wise Art Decade is mostly Bowie, but then what exactly do you mean when you say Eno assembled much of the piece? I guess you mean he “painted” and edited over Bowie and Eno’s sketch?

    Likewise about Warszawa they seem to indicate that both Bowie and Eno had a hand in the structure of the song but you downplay Bowie’s involvement and state only Eno. So i guess i’d like some clarification if possible about how it went down.

    Thanks 😀

    • col1234 says:

      it’s not really possible: there are no accessible studio logs or outtakes or demos. it’s all informed speculation, pretty much. Pegg and Wilcken don’t really know how it all went down, nor do I. There will be more in the book revision, from what I could determine from seven years of reading interviews, etc. Art Decade is probably mostly DB imitating Eno, yes. Warszawa seems to be an Eno structural work with a lot of DB input on melody/transitions, etc. but who knows.

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